References

Science for Life was intended to be an easy read, so references were omitted, but it can be useful to follow up on topics, so we will build up a list of references here which enable easy access to original sources and documents.

Contents

Diet 1

Alcohol 5 - Bottle of wine a day claim, risks of drinking (NHS Choices)meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and cancer risk, systematic review of alcohol consumption and heart failure
Antioxidants 7 - Cochrane systematic review
Artificial sweeteners 9 - European Aspartame study, Aspartame (review of safety)
Breakfast 13 - Skipping breakfast and heart disease, skipping breakfast and increased blood pressure/cholesterol, claim that a fry up could be healthiest start to the day (NHS Choices)
Burned food 15 - American Cancer Society, David Spiegelhalter
Calorie intake 17 - NHS Choices
Carbohydrates 19 - NHS Choices
Chemicals 21 - Blueberries: James Kennedy blog, Marketing use of Natural: Ecologic
Chlorophyll 24
Chocolate 25 - Theobromine: Royal Society of Chemistry, Chocolate health claims: NHS Choices
Cholesterol 28
Coffee 29 - Dehydration (NHS Choices), Disrupting sleep (NHS Choices), Overview and cafestol (Harvard)
Dairy 32
Detox 34 - Some information on the now disappeared Duchy Organics Detox Tincture, Bad Science
E-numbers 40 - Food Standards Agency
Eggs 41 - NHS Choices
Enzyme powders 42
Fat 44 - Fat content of foods (The Composition of Foods)
Fibre 45
Five a day 47 - 2014 Study, Summary of 2014 study
Fizzy drinks 49 - 2013 report suggesting diet drinks make you fatter
Food colouring 51 - Tartrazine (Royal Society of Chemistry)
Food groups 52 - UK (NHS Choices), US (USDA)
Fried food 54
Fruit 55 - Sugar content (etc.) of fruit (The Composition of Foods)
Fruit juice 56 - Sugar content (etc.) of fruit juice (The Composition of Foods)
GI 58 - NHS Choices
Gluten 59
GM foods 61
Hydration 63 - 2000 study comparing hydration from water and caffeinated drinks, British Medical Journal on sports drinks
Monosodium glutamate 65 - Skeptical Raptor, 1969 Chinese Restaurant Syndrome paper
Natural products 67
No added sugar 68 - Dietary information on food packaging
Nuts 69 - 2013 health study, 2007 frequent nut eaters study 
Omega 3 72 - 2014 Omega 3 and Cardiovascular Heath study, Omega 3 and school children's performance study
Organic food 74 - 2014 study on organic crops, Helen Browning interview, Joanna Btythman article
Paleo diet 77 - Paleofantasy
Pesticide residues 79
Probiotics   80
Processed meat 80
Protein 84
Red meat 86
Red wine 87
Salt 90
Saturated fat 92 - NHS Choices, 2014 Report reviewing 72 studies
Smoothies 93
Spices 95
Spreads 97
Starch 99
Storage of food 99
Sugar 102
Superfruits 104 - Miracle Foods, myths and the media
Supplements 106 - Limited impact on heart disease and cancer
Tannins 108
Trans fats 109 - NHS Choices2014 Report reviewing 72 studies
Vitamins and minerals 111
Vitamin C 114 - Vitamin C and colds, cancer (and Linus Pauling)
Vitamin D 115
Water 117 - Health Myths (New Scientist)
Weight loss foods 117 - Green Coffee Beans (review), Green Coffee Beans (Science Based Medicine)Raspberry Ketones (review)

Exercise 119

Aerobic exercise 121
Afterburn 122 - The First 20 Minutes (Icon, 2012) pp 86-7
Breathing and relaxation 124
Broom and mop efficiency 125
Cycling 127
Duration 129
Frequency and Timing 130
Knuckle cracking 131 - Donald Unger (starts towards end of first page)
Overload 133
Recovery 135
Resistance training 137
Running 138
Sitting 139
Stairs 141
Stress 142
Stretching 143 - Paper on negative effects of static stretching
Swimming 145
Walking 146
Warmups 147

Brain 190

Ageing 151
Baby brains 153 - The Psychology of Babies, Lynn Murray
Brain-boosting habits 156
Brain food 158
Brain Gym 161 - Bad Science (Fourth Estate 2008), pp 13-20
Brain training for fading capabilities 162
Brain training for intelligence 164
Drugs 166
Environment for thinking 168
Exercise and the brain 169
Finding things 171
Idea prompting 172
Left/right brain 175
Long-term memory 177
Mind maps and note taking 179
Music 181
Oxytocin 183
Problem solving 185
Procedural memory 186
Puzzles 188
Reading 190
Remembering lists 192
Remembering names 195
Remembering numbers 197
Serotonin 199
Short-term memory 200
Software 201
TV watching 204
Video games 206
Violence on TV/film 208

Psychology 261

Advertising 212
Air versus Road 214
Assertiveness 216
Bargaining 219
Clusters 221
Free things 223
Habits 226
Overvaluing things we own 228
Price 231
Procrastination 232
Risk 235
Ritual 236
Scale 239
Self-esteem 241
Smiles and other body language 243
Standing out 244
Swearing 245
Upselling 246
Using incentives 248

Health 305

Acupuncture 252 - WHO presentationPubMed Systematic review; German multi-centre trials: migraine, tension headaches, chronic back pain,  knee pain; US randomised trial
Allergies 254
Antacids 256
Antibiotics 258
Aromatherapy 259
Bacteria 261
Blind trials 262
BMI 264
Breast milk   266
Cancer 267
Carbon monoxide 269
Catching a cold 270
Chicken washing 271
Chiropractic 272 - Cochrane review
Cold cures 274 - Chinese herbal (Cochrane), Echinacea (Cochrane), Garlic (Cochrane), Vitamin C (Cochrane), Zinc (Cochrane)
Colonic irrigation 276
Cough medicine 277
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) 278
Deodorant 280
Drinkable sunscreen 281 - Telegraph article, Daily Mail article
Ear candles 283 - Bad Science Fourth Estate 2008, pp 6-7
Ear pops 284
Eyesight 285
Five second rule 287
Hand washing 289 - Antibacterial soaps
Hangovers 291
Herbal medicine 293 - US Study 2013
Homeopathy 295 - Lancet Meta-analysis
Hyperactivity and sugar 299
Immune system 301 - Science Based Medicine, Skeptical Raptor
Jet lag 303
MMR 305 - Wakefield's retracted study based on 12 children, 2004 systematic study showing no connection between MMR and autism
Obesity 307
Osteopathy 308
Painkillers 310
Panic attacks 311
Paracetamol and childhood asthma 313 - NHS Choices
Placebo effect 315
Reflexology 317
Reiki 318
Screens and eyes 319
Sunburn 320
Swimming after eating 321
Vaccination 323
Vegetable washing 324
Viruses 325
Weight reduction pills 327

Environment 395

Carbon dioxide emissions 333
Carbon neutral 334
Carbon offsetting 335
Carrier bags 337
Electric cars 339
Fire drill 341
Food miles 342
Flying 344
Greenhouse effect 346
Hybrid cars 348
Hydrogen fuel 349
Keeping cool 351
Keeping warm 352
Lightning 355
Low energy light bulbs 356
Nappies 359
Natural radiation 361
Nuclear power 363
Petrol consumption 365
Phone masts 367
Power cuts – computers 368 - Global Warming Survival Kit
Power cuts - fridges 369 - Global Warming Survival Kit
Power cuts - lighting 371 - Global Warming Survival Kit
Spiders 373
Street violence and architecture 374
Wi-Fi 376

Fun 453

Busses come in threes 380
Crop circles 381 - Inflight Science
Digital media 382
Falling toast 383
Ghosts 385
Hyaluronic acid and other wonders of chemistry 386 - Royal Society of Chemistry
Irritatingly itchy 388
Lottery 389 - Dice World
Queuing 390
Recorded music 393
Toilet roll perforations 394
UFOs 395
Weather forecasts 397
Wine 398

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